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Xyleborus dispar (F.)
Anisandrus dispar

Insecta, Coleoptera, Scolytidae .

European shot-hole borer

Description, Biology, Life Cycle, Damage, Common Names, Images

- Adult: the female has a hemicylindrical body and a globular thorax; 3 to 4 mm long (*) . The male is less elongated, thorax and abdomen more rounded, about 2 mm (*) . The general coloration of individuals of both sexes varies from very dark brown to black and has a shiny appearence, especially on the abdomen.

- Extremely polyphagous, European shot-hole borer attacks for preference apple, pear, apricot but also develops on peach, cherry, sweet chestnut, plum as well as on various forest trees.
- Adult: hibernates in the gallery where it underwent metamorphosis. The female flies away in spring, when the diurnal temperature reaches 18 °C. It locates another tree and bores through the wood, forming a characteristic network of galleries of a uniform diameter of 2 to 5 mm (*) . The initial gallery is perpendicular to the branch axis, then forks off to form, in the large branches, a concentric ring. From this ring, short galleries are dug parallel to the branch axis. 10 to 15 days after the attacks on the trunk, the female lays about 40 eggs in the galleries.
- Larva: appears a few days after laying and develops over 4 to 6 weeks. It does not dig any galleries and feeds on a xylophagous fungi, "Ambrosia", the spores of which are carried by the female.
- Pupa: pupation lasts 10 to 15 days.

[R]Life Cycle
- 1 annual generation.
- The adults stay in the galleries during summer, autumn and winter. They come out of the tree and swarm in the next spring, from mid-March to end of April.

The European shot-hole borer attacks healthy trees. The drilling of galleries often leads to the death of young hosts and a rapid decline of older trees which dry up suddenly after flowering. In vigorous trees, the sap fills up the galleries and can impede the development of the eggs and the larvae.

[R]Common Names
DE: Ungleicher Holzbohrer ES: Barrenillo FR: Xylébore disparate IT: Xileboro diseguale PT: Xileboro GB: European shot-hole borer

[R] Images

  1. Xyleborus dispar (F.) (Coutin R. / OPIE)
    Maternal galleries Tangential gallery and several longitudinal galleries in a poplar branch.
  2. Xyleborus dispar (F.) (Coutin R. / OPIE)
  3. Xyleborus dispar (F.) (Coutin R. / OPIE)
    Female forming a gallery in a plum tree
  4. Xyleborus dispar (F.) (Coutin R. / OPIE)
    Dust waste On the surface of the bark of a plum tree, at the site of the hole made by the penetrating female.

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