Insecta, Homoptera, Lecanidae .
Description, Biology, Life Cycle, Damage, Common Names, Images
- Host plants: olive; Citrus; fig; oleander (Nerium oleander) (*) ; ivy (Hedera); apricot; Pittosporum sp. This insect is polyphagous.
- Adults: Adult females about to begin egg laying, appear in April-May. They are preceded by the hibernating 2nd- and 3rd-instar nymphs. Each female lays between 150 to 2,500 eggs.
- Eggs: Oviposition may extend for 10 to 15 days in the spring and twice as long in the autumn. Eggs remain under the female scale. Eclosion occurs after an incubation period of 15-20 days.
- Nymphs: 1st-generation nymphs may appear from June onwards, frequently until the first days of August. Populations composed mainly of nymphal stages and a few young females can be detected simultaneously during September. Some of these young females may lay eggs during this period provided the weather stays mild. The newly emerged nymphs which then appear by the end of October constitute a partial 2nd generation.
- Newly emerged nymphs move around searching on the host plant for a place to settle down. S. oleae is usually univoltine, although an incomplete generation may occur when the weather stays mild in the autumn. S. oleae hibernates as nymph (in several intars) which begin to feed in the following spring.
- The feeding process of scale insects includes piercing of the host tissues and sucking the sap. S. oleae occurs on the twigs and leaves usually on the undersides (*) .
The damage is the result of the absortion of nutritional material and water contained in the sap. Sooty mould affects photosynthesis.
Host plants under water stress, however, reduce the S. oleaea degree of attack.
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