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Pandemis heparana (Denis & Schiffermüller)
Insecta, Lepidoptera, Tortricidae .

Apple brown tortrix

Description, Biology, Life Cycle, Damage, Common Names, Images


[R]Description
- Adult: 20 mm wingspan. The fore wings are yellowish brown to reddish brown with a basal and a darker median band. The male has, as are all Pandemis species, a deep notch on the second antennal joint (*) .
- Eggs: laid clustered in the form of egg-rafts of several dozen eggs on the upper surface of apple or peach leaves. Light green and not covered by a waxy secretion.
- Larva: it can reach 22 mm. The head, the body, the prothoracic plate and the anal plate are uniformly light green to yellowish. The back has small clear spots at the base of the bristles. This larva can move vigourous, when touched, it twists about and falls at the end of a silk thread.
- Pupa: in a cocoon woven in rolled up leaves. Greenish at first, it becomes dark red-brown. It measures up to 12 mm long. Development lasts 8 to 10 days.

[R]Biology
- Host plants: fruit bearing Rosaceae particularly apple and pear.
- Fecundity: several hundred eggs.
- Egg: embryonic development lasts 2 to 3 weeks.
- Larva: 5 instars for the male, 6 for the female. The caterpillar feeds on leaves and fruit attached to each other by a web. On leaves, the young larva forms a small silken tube on the lower surface, from where gnaws the epidermis and parenchyma; once it is more developed, it eats through the limb attacking it from the side or perforating it. On fruit, it feeds on the epidermis and the pulp in more or less large areas forming patterns.
These attacks are spread over the whole tree, the larva can successively attack many leaves and fruits. The larva hibernates in a silken cocoon woven under the bark or in various other shelters.
- Pupa: development lasts 2 to 3 weeks.

[R]Life Cycle
- 2 generations per year and 3 periods of larval activity and of damage of unequal importance.
- Larval activity resumes very early, at the budburst stage C3-D of apple, but at intervals within the population. The larvae enter the open flower and leaf buds situated at the centre of the tree, they tie them together with a dense webbing and feed upon them. It pupates in rolled up leaves.
- The first flight takes place from May-June to July-August depending on the region. The second flight takes place from July-August to October.
- The young larvae from the autumn generation develop until they enter hibernation.

[R]Damage
- The damage is caused by larvae feeding on fruit (apple, pear) (*) . It is extremely limited in spring. The damage of the summer generation can be particularly serious. That of the autumn generation depends on the size of the population and the development of rotting, in particular during the storing of attacked fruit.
- The varieties of apple most sensitive are those with very dense fruit such as: the Pippins and the group of the red Deliciouses and its mutants.


[R]Common Names
DE: Fruchtschalenwickler ES: Tortrícido de los frutos FR: Tordeuse pandemis IT: Tortrice verde delle Pomacee. PT: Traça pandemis GB: Apple brown tortrix, Dark fruit-tree tortrix

[R] Images

  1. Pandemis heparana (Denis et Schiffermüller) Moth (Coutin R. / OPIE)
  2. Pandemis heparana (Denis et Schiffermüller) Damage on apple Damage is caused to the surface of apple.
  3. Pandemis heparana (Denis et Schiffermüller) (Bouloux / OPIE)
    Damage on apple

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