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Hoplocampa testudinea (Klug)
Insecta, Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae .

Apple sawfly

Description, Biology, Life Cycle, Damage, Common Names, Images


[R]Description
- Adult: 6 to 7 mm long. Glossy black on dorsal surface, yellowish-brown on ventral, yellow head. Wings folded horizontally on the back, hyaline with brown venation (*) .
- Eggs: 1 mm. Translucent.
- Larva: 12 to 14 mm. Whitish with brown head. 7 pairs of abdominal prolegs. Gives off a typical stinkbug smell.

[R]Biology
- Host plant: apple.
- Adult: reproduction is mainly parthenogenetic, unfertilised eggs giving rise to females.
- Fecundity: 30 eggs.
- Eggs: time until hatching, 8 to 18 days, according to temperature.
- Larva: 3.5 to 4 weeks.
- Pupa: 17 to 20 days.

[R]Life Cycle
- 1 generation per year, the life-cycle occasionally extends over 2 years.
- The adult appears in April/May in France, north of the river Loire. The female lays eggs on flowers in blossom (stages F2 to F4 (*) ), piercing the calyx beneath the sepals and depositing the egg at the base of the stamens (*) . The egg swells, causing epidermis of the receptacle to burst in such a way that eventually part of it projects from the calyx.
- The young larva digs a gallery along the underside of the epidermis, then burrows towards the centre of the apple (primary attack) (*) . It then attacks other apples (2 to 5), but by burrowing into the fruit directly (secondary attack). Leaving the fruit by a large hole with definite edges, it drops to the ground where it burrows to a depth of 5 to 10 cm and weaves a silky cocoon in which it remains in diapause for 9 to 21 months.
- Pupation in March.

[R]Damage
Apple varieties with a large number of flowers in blossom during the laying period are preferred. White flowers are the most attractive. The fine superficial galleries trigger off the formation of characteristically shaped surface wounds (russeting) which deform the fruit (*) . When this occurs extensively on young fruit, they drop off in large numbers. The frass remains in the fruit and smells strongly of stinkbugs. Secondary attacks also cause the fruits to drop prematurely (*) .


[R]Common Names
DE: Apfelsägewespe ES: Hoplocampa del manzano FR: Hoplocampe du pommier IT: Oplocampa delle mele PT: Hoplocampa da macieira GB: Apple sawfly

[R] Images

  1. Hoplocampa testudinea (Klug) (Coutin R. / OPIE)
    Adult Gathering pollen from an apple blossom; the ovipositor is visible (arrowed).
  2. Hoplocampa testudinea (Klug) (Coutin R. / OPIE)
    Egg The calyx has been opened to show the egg in place at the level of the notch of two sepals.
  3. Hoplocampa testudinea (Klug) (Coutin R. / OPIE)
    Larva The apple has been cut in half to show the larva feeding at the centre of the fruitlet.
  4. Hoplocampa testudinea (Klug) (Coutin R. / OPIE)
    Damage on apple fruitlet The larva pushes its frass (moist) to the exterior.
  5. Hoplocampa testudinea (Klug) (Coutin R. / OPIE)
    Damage on harvested apples The gallery of the young larva which died prematurely, remains visible and down-grades the fruit.
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