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Globodera rostochiensis (Wollenweber), {Globodera pallida (Stone)}
Heterodera rostochiensis

Nematoda, Tylenchida, Heteroderidae .

Potato root nematode, Potato cyst nematode

Description, Biology, Life Cycle, Damage, Common Names, Images

Long considered as one species, the potato cyst nematode includes in fact 2 distinct species forming the genus Globodera: G. rostochiensis and G. pallida.
- Males and juveniles of both sexes are mobile, threadlike and less than 1 mm in length.
- After fertilization, females transform into a spherical pocket of 0.1-0.8 mm across. Resistant, golden-brown and filled with eggs, it juts out at the surface of young roots and is called a cyst (*) (*) .
- Eggs: each cyst contains 200-1000 eggs.

- Host plants: this genus exclusively parasitizes the Solanaceae, especially potato, tomato, egg plant and a few volunteer plants such as bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara) and henbane (Hyoscyamus niger).
- Hatching, which is favoured by humidity and a substance secreted by the roots of the host plant, is never complete, certain eggs remaining in a latent state for many years.
- Young juveniles pierce the cuticle of the host plant's radicles, penetrate the tissues and make their way between cells, causing the formation of giant cells which hold up sap circulation. After some time, males vacate the roots while females move to the surface, break out of the epidermis, but with their head remaining fixed to the host.
Mating occurs, eggs develop and cause the body of females to swell. Females then become cysts and die. These become detached and remain in the soil. The complete cycle lasts 50-70 days.

[R]Life Cycle
- There is 1 generation per year.
- Hatching begins as soon as temperatures reach 12°C and takes place gradually. The 1st cysts are few in June but appear in considerable numbers in July and August, formation ceasing in October. Eggs usually do not all hatch in one season: the emergence of the juveniles is spread out over several years. In the absence of suitable hosts plants, nematode populations decrease by 30% per year, and it may take 20-30 years before heavy infestations disappear.

- Nematode secretions lead to a modification of plant tissues and a reduction of sap circulation. Moreover, roots turn brown, ramify and become shrubby. Growth of potato is slowed down, lower leaves wither and die; upper leaves become discoloured, the edge of leaflets exhibiting brown spots. Affected plants are stunted and yield poorly.
- Attacks in fields tipically occur in patches (*) .

[R]Common Names
DE: Kartoffelzystenälchen ES: Nematodo de la patata FR: Nématode ŕ kystes de la pomme de terre, Nématode doré IT: Nematode dorato della patata PT: Nemátodo dourado da batateira GB: Potato root nematode

[R] Images

  1. Globodera rostochiensis (Wollenweber) (SHELL)
    Attack on tubes of potato Cysts are visible at the surface of the tuber.
  2. Globodera rostochiensis (Wollenweber) (INRA Antibes)
    Damage on potato
  3. Globodera rostochiensis (Wollenweber) (INRA Antibes)
    Young cyst Inserted in a radicle of potato.
  4. Globodera rostochiensis (Wollenweber) (BASF)
    Cysts on roots of potato

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