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Euphyllura olivina Costa

Insecta, Homoptera, Psyllidae .

Olive psyllid

Description, Biology, Life Cycle, Damage, Common Names, Images

- Adult: small, about 2.5 mm long, bulky in profile and robust. They jumps rapidily before flying, and have strong wings and aaaan anteriorly inclined head. greenish to pale coloured, fore wings with light brownish shadows.
- Egg:sub-elliptical, slightly narrowed atone end and with a pedicel, that is in contact with the substratum, at the other.
Very small, 0.3 mm long, and pale yellowish in colour.
- Nymph: before reaching the adult stage the insect passes through 5 nymphal instars varying from 0.4 mm long in the lst to 1.5 in the final instar. They have incomplete metamorphosis, resembling the adult in appearencet.
The first nymphal instar has no visible traces of wings, unlike the 2 last instars in which wing buds are clearly visible (*) . In all instars the body is covered with withish waxy secreted by the insect.

- Host plant: olive.
- Adults: they pass the winter period in crevices or holes on olive trunks, resuming activity and mating as soon as spring-time begins. Females frequently lay one or more eggs on the new shoots. Each female can lay more than 1,000 eggs.
Longevity : 2 to 3 months.
- Eggs: eclosion occurs after an incubation period of 8-12 days.
- Nymphs: feed by rupturing cells and imbibing the sap, damaging the attacked tissue and at the same time excreting honeydew upon wich sooty moulds develop. Nymphal development can take 24 to 35 days.

[R]Life Cycle
- The lst generation occurs during March-April while the 2nd generation in May-June on inflorescences and flower buds. This 2nd generation aestivates in summer when temperatures exceed 27°C. As soon as the weather becomes more favourable, ususally after the first September rains, the adults restart their activity and give rise to the 3rd generation. The hibernating adults will result from this last generation.

Damage: the 2nd generation, being assiociated with the new fowering and fruiting olive branches, is the most harmful not only because the direct feeding activity afects yield but also because indirect action by producing waxy secretions induces many of the flowers to abort, even those not attacked directly (*) , (*) .
The presence of honey-dew and sooty moulds aggravate the latter situation.
Control measures during this peariod against this pest are less efficient because of the waxy coating over the insects, it is preferable to reduce E. oivina populations during the lst generation rather than later in the season.

[R]Common Names
DE: Ölbaumblattfloh ES: Algodón del olivo, Pulgón blanco del olivo FR: Psylle de l'olivier IT: Cotonello dell'olivo PT: Algodão da oliveira, Psylla da oliveira GB: Olive psyllid

[R] Images

  1. Euphyllura olivina (Costa) (Daumal J. / INRA Antibes)
    Secretions and damage on olive flower buds.
  2. Euphyllura olivina (Costa) (Evaristo N. / EAN)
    Infested olive twig
  3. Euphyllura olivina (Costa) Egg and larvae (in Arambourg (Entomologie oléïcole))

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HYPPZ on line : Species (scientific name), Pests (common names), Glossary, Crops.

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