Insecta, Diptera, Tephritidae .
Description, Biology, Life Cycle, Damage, Common Names, Images
- Host plants: olive.
- Adults: Longevity exceeds 6 months; oviposition period from 25 to 100 days sometimes interrupted for 5 to 6 months. Fecundity: several hundred.
- Eggs: Eclosion period - 2 to 4 days during summer time and 10 to 16 days in winter.
- Larvae: 9 to 14 days depending on temperature.
- Pupal stage: 10 to 14 days with temperatures about 25°C and up to 3 months when temperatures are near the lower threshold of development. Life-cycle duration: about 30 days.
- Number of generations: 2 to 4, with 3 more usual in central and southern regions of Portugal. During winter and spring-time the insect occurs as pupa or adult (white period). The first generation results from the oviposition on young olives with large enough for larvae to develop (from end of July, in Portugal). Adults which give rise to the 1st. generation emerge pupae overwintering in the soil. Mortality of the pupae will depend on the severity of the winter. When temperatures are higher than 7°C (minimum threshold for development) the adults appear. Mating occurs 2-4 days after emergence. Eggs are laid singly on fruits, each inserted under the skin. The number of adults at the end of the white period (June-July) will determine the pest attack level and extent of infestation for the lst. generation. Such population may be monitored using pheromone traps.
- On crop intended for oil extraction there are 4 different kinds of damage: a) premature drop of attacked fruits; b) direct pulp destruction caused by larvae developing in the fruits (*) ; c) acidity increase and other secundary effects associated with larval development, including the development of pulp infections and oviposition resulting from holes in the skin; d) infections resulting from predation on Dacus oleae eggs by the cecidomyiid Prolasioptera berlesiana .
On the olives production for table: rejection of fruits with a simple oviposition mark when only a very low percentage is affected.
HYPPZ on line : Species (scientific name), Pests (common names), Glossary, Crops.