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Dacus oleae (Gmelin)
Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin)

Insecta, Diptera, Tephritidae .

Olive fruit fly

Description, Biology, Life Cycle, Damage, Common Names, Images


[R]Description
- Adult: 4 to 5 mm long. Hyaline wings dark ribs and two brownish marks, one in the fore margin (stigma) and the second more diffuse at the apex, head and thorax brown, the latter with two black plates dorsally. Brownish abdomen also with brown laterally dorsal plates (*) (*) .
- Egg: 0.7 mm long. A slight prominence on the posterior end (*) .
- Larva: apodous, ivory whitish depending on the food (olive colour pulp) passing through three instars before the pupal stage.
- Puparium: elliptical with 3.5 to 4.5 mm long and 1.5 to 2.0 mm wide (*) .

[R]Biology
- Host plants: olive.
- Adults: Longevity exceeds 6 months; oviposition period from 25 to 100 days sometimes interrupted for 5 to 6 months. Fecundity: several hundred.
- Eggs: Eclosion period - 2 to 4 days during summer time and 10 to 16 days in winter.
- Larvae: 9 to 14 days depending on temperature.
- Pupal stage: 10 to 14 days with temperatures about 25C and up to 3 months when temperatures are near the lower threshold of development. Life-cycle duration: about 30 days.

[R]Life Cycle
- Number of generations: 2 to 4, with 3 more usual in central and southern regions of Portugal. During winter and spring-time the insect occurs as pupa or adult (white period). The first generation results from the oviposition on young olives with large enough for larvae to develop (from end of July, in Portugal). Adults which give rise to the 1st. generation emerge pupae overwintering in the soil. Mortality of the pupae will depend on the severity of the winter. When temperatures are higher than 7C (minimum threshold for development) the adults appear. Mating occurs 2-4 days after emergence. Eggs are laid singly on fruits, each inserted under the skin. The number of adults at the end of the white period (June-July) will determine the pest attack level and extent of infestation for the lst. generation. Such population may be monitored using pheromone traps.

[R]Damage
- On crop intended for oil extraction there are 4 different kinds of damage: a) premature drop of attacked fruits; b) direct pulp destruction caused by larvae developing in the fruits (*) ; c) acidity increase and other secundary effects associated with larval development, including the development of pulp infections and oviposition resulting from holes in the skin; d) infections resulting from predation on Dacus oleae eggs by the cecidomyiid Prolasioptera berlesiana .
On the olives production for table: rejection of fruits with a simple oviposition mark when only a very low percentage is affected.


[R]Common Names
DE: Olivenfliege ES: Mosca de la aceituna FR: Mouche de l'olive IT: Mosaca delle olive PT: Mosca da azeitona GB: Olive fly

[R] Images

  1. Dacus oleae (Gmelin) (Coutin R. / OPIE)
    Adult on olive
  2. Dacus oleae (Gmelin) (INRA / Antibes)
    Egg Olive sectioned to show the egg and the wound caused by the oviscapt.
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  3. Dacus oleae (Gmelin) (Coutin R. / OPIE)
    Damage on olive Affected olives are crumpled. 2 larvae about to bury themselves in the soil (arrowed).
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  4. Dacus oleae (Gmelin) (Coutin R. / OPIE)
    Pupae in the soil
  5. Dacus oleae (Gmelin) (INRA / Antibes)
    Opius concolor parasitizing larvae The female of this hymenopterous insect deposits its egg in the larva through the skin of the olive.
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