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Cydia pomonella (L.)
Laspeyresia pomonella

Insecta, Lepidoptera, Tortricidae .

Codling moth

Description, Biology, Life Cycle, Damage, Common Names, Images


[R]Description
- Adult: Wingspan 16 to 19 mm. Very obvious and characteristic brown oval marking, surrounded by 2 shiny golden brown lines, tending towards the bronze, on the grey fore wings. Hind wings reddish brown, delicately ciliated (*) .
- Eggs: 1 mm diameter. Circular, flattened, slightly swollen in the middle. Laid singly on the upper side of the leaf, on the fruit or twig. Milky-white at first, then, a few days later, with presence of a reddish ring at the periphery (*) .
- Larva: 16 to 20 mm. Head dark brown; body pale pink to reddish. Abdominal prolegs, anal prolegs.
- Pupa: 10 to 12 mm. Yellow-brown to dark brown. Occuring in silky cocoon (*) .

[R]Biology
- Host plants: apricot, quince,walnut, pear, apple and sometimes peach and plum.
- Adult: medium longevity, 15 to 18 days. Active during the day at temperatures of >15°C.
- Fecundity: 30 to 50 eggs, on average.
- Eggs: time until hatching, 18 days at 15°C, and 6 at 25°C.
- Larva: developmental duration, 20 to 30 days.
- Pupa: developmental duration, 20 to 28 days.

[R]Life Cycle
- 1 or 2 generations per year in France, sometimes 3 in the south of France.
- The eggs hatch at the end of May.
- The caterpillar first undergoes a so-called "wandering stage" (2 to 5 days) (*) . After a couple of exploratory bites, it penetrates a fruit where a second fruit or a leaf is touching, or at the stalk or stalk-eye (*) . When development is completed, it leaves the fruit and weaves a cocoon in a sheltered spot. From then onwards, two developmental routes are possible: it will either pupate and give rise to a 2nd-generation of moth, or enter diapause. The caterpillars that become fully fed from August to October all enter diapause. They overwinter in cocoons hidden in cracks in the tree-trunk or in a natural shelter on the soil.
- Pupation in April.
- The adults emerge at the end of April, beginning of May. They mate and lay the eggs on leaves, twigs, or young fruits.

[R]Damage
On pomaceous fruit, around the entrance hole made by the young larva, a gnawed area, followed by a spiral gallery leading down to the pips which the caterpillar also eats (*) . On walnuts, the caterpillar burrows through the husk to the kernel; when the latter hardens, it leaves by the hilum or remains in the husk. The bite marks on the damaged fruit makes them impossible to sell. Damaged fruit drops prematurely.
Late or seasonal varieties of pear are not very susceptible to the 1st generation because their epidermis is hard.
* Biological control trials: enemies: hymenopterous egg parasites (Trichogramma) or caterpillars (Ascogaster, various Ichneumonidae, and a Tachinidae fly).


[R]Common Names
DE: Apfelwickler ES: Gusano de las manzanas y las peras FR: Carpocapse des pommes et des poires IT: Carpocapsa, Baco delle mele PT: Bichado das pomóideas GB: Codling moth

[R] Images

  1. Cydia pomonella (L.) (Coutin R. / OPIE)
    Adult
  2. Cydia pomonella (L.) (Coutin R. / OPIE)
    Eggs The red vitellus and the black head of the embryo (future caterpillar) are visible through the chorion.
  3. Cydia pomonella (L.) (Coutin R. / OPIE)
    Pupa Pupa in its cocoon -which has been opened- at the fork of a branch.
  4. Cydia pomonella (L.) (Coutin R. / OPIE)
    Female at rest Preparing to lay on an apple leaf.
  5. Cydia pomonella (L.) (Coutin R. / OPIE)
    Young larva at the "wandering stage" Underside of an apple leaf.
  6. Cydia pomonella (L.) (Coutin R. / OPIE)
    Second instar larva Devouring the pips in the carpellary cavity.
  7. Cydia pomonella (L.) (Coutin R. / OPIE)
    Attacked apple The dry larva frass is pushed to the exterior of the fruit (arrowed).
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