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Apion trifolii (F.)
Apion aestivum Germar

Insecta, Coleoptera, Curculionidae .

Clover seed weevil

Description, Biology, Life Cycle, Damage, Common Names, Images

- Adult: 2 to 3 mm, shiny black. Elongated and curved rostrum (*) .
- Egg: greenish yellow, very small (0.5 over 1.5 mm).

- Host plants: leguminous plants and particularly red clover seed crops.
- Adult: the weevil feeds on the clover foliage which becomes riddled with small holes. Appearing in autumn, it acquires sexual maturity after hibernation, in the following spring. The female lays in the capitulum of clover whose flowers are not yet open. It digs a hole with its rostrum and deposits its eggs singly at the base of the flowers.
- Egg: development lasts 8 days.
- Larva: it feeds at the expense of developing seeds, and occasionally that of floral parts (*) . Each larva destroys on average 7 to 8 seeds. It pupates in the attacked capitulum.
- Pupa: development lasts 8 days.

[R]Life Cycle
- 1 generation per year.
- From April onwards, the hibernated adults emerge at very regular intervals. Egg-laying ceases when full flowering is finished. Precutting can impede larval development, but in this case, laying resumes 20 to 25 days later after cutting, with the reappearance of a favourable stage of the plant.

The damage caused by adults on the shoots and young leaves is negligible, but the damage due to the larvae can reach 40 % of the harvest of red clover seeds.

[R]Common Names
DE: Luzernestengelrüssler ES: Pequeño apion del trébol FR: Petit Apion du trèfle IT: Apione del trifoglio PT: Apion pequeno do trevo GB: Clover seed weevil

[R] Images

  1. Apion trifolii (F.) (Coutin R. / OPIE)
    Larvae and damage on clover inflorescence Cross-section of the inflorescence illustrating seeds destroyed by larvae (arrowed).
  2. Apion trifolii (F.) (Coutin R. / OPIE)
    Adult under a clover leaflet

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