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Forage grasses


[R] - Monocotyledonous plants used for animal feed, in the form of pasture, hay or silage.
- They may be sown in temporary fields, pure stands, mixed, together with a forage legume or form the basis for natural fields.
- This very homogeneous group, is characterized by a cylindrical, hollow stem, a long sheath of leaves, an inflorescence in the form of a spike or panicle, composed of small greenish flowers arranged in spikelets. The members of the group are cocksfoot, fescue, rye-grass, timothy, foxtail, etc.
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- Diseases: the most serious on forage grasses are the rust diseases Puccinia striiformis and P. graminis which may decrease yields by 10 to 20%.
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- Principal European pests: the most serious damage is caused by the frit fly (Oscinella frit) which essentially attacks the seedlings. The marsh crane fly (Tipula paludosa), and the field slug (Deroceras reticulatum) also damage young plants.
Larvae of the turnip moth (Agrotis segetum), and the dark-sword grass moth (Agrotis ipsilon) develop inside the stems.
The caterpillars of the antler moth, Cerapteryx graminis (L.) (Lep., Noctuidae), of Tholera decimalis (Poda) (same family) and of the American army worm (Mythimna unipunctata) eat the edges of the leaves. The cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopa ) also attacks the leaves.
Gall midges attack the inflorescences and are more specific, for example the foxtail midges Alopecurus myosuroides, , Contarinia merceri (Barnes) and Stenodiplosis (Contarinia) geniculati (Reuter) (Dip., Cecidomyiidae).


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HYPPZ on line: Species (scientific names), Pests (common names), Glossary, Crops.

HYP3 : HYPP Phytopathology.

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