[R] Vitis vinifera L. (Ampelidaceae).
Fr: Vigne; Ge: Weinrebe; Sp: Viña; It: Vite; Pt: Videira.
- Twisted shrubby climber. The foot of the vine is called the vine-stock, the offshoots support the branches. The fructiferous branches have at their base 1 to 3 branched inflorescences.
- The fruit (grape) clusters are small greenish or black-purple berries arranged in a raceme (*) . They may be consumed fresh (table grapes) or as dried fruit. However, a large part of the crop is used in the production of wine.
- The two principal producers of wine, on a world scale, are France and Italy. They are followed by Spain, which possesses the largest surface area, and then Germany.
- Planting occurs in spring. Plants that have been already grafted are generally used, but grafting may be done in the field. There are different modes of training, varying with country and region. The harvest occurs in autumn.
- Propagation occurs by vegetative reproduction.
- Diseases: numerous parasites attack grapevines. The most serious are: black-rot, downy mildew, powdery mildew, grey mould. In the various wine regions, different diseases predominate, thus determining the particular control strategy required.
- Principal European pests: there are numerous pests that attack grapevines; their relative importance varies with climactic zone.
The (Dactylosphaera vitifoliae) resulted in the loss of European vineyards at the end of the last century; the use of resistant rootstocks has eliminated the problem. The grape bud moth (Eupoecilia ambiguella), the vine moth (Lobesia botrana) and, to a lesser extent, Argyrotaenia ljungiana are serious pests that attack the fruit. They are controlled by pheromeone traps put in place by agricultural advisory services.
Various mites discolour the leaves: the fruit tree red spider mite (Panonychus ulmi), the hornbeam mite (Eotetranychus carpini), the McDaniel spider mite (Tetranychus mcdanieli), the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae), the (Calepitrimerus vitis).
The vine leafhopper (Empoasca vitis) and Drepanothrips reuteri (Uzel) (Thy., Thripidae) also cause spotting on the leaves. Bromius obscurus L. (Col., Chrysomelidae), and the long-palped tortrix , (Sparganothis pilleriana) attack the leaves.
Many species of scale insects colonize the branches, including Pseudococcus citri (Risso), (Hom., Pseudococcidae), the European brown scale (Eulecanium corni) and the (Eulecanium persicae).
The root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. ) produce swellings in the roots; the larvae of the cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha) eat the roots.
The garden tiger moth ,Arctia caja (L.) (Lep., Arctiidae), the turnip moth (Agrotis segetum), the dark sword-grass moth (Agrotis ipsilon) and Otiorhynchus meridionalis (Col., Curculionidae) damage the branches.
The hazel leaf roller weevil, Byctiscus betulae (L.) (Col., Rhynchitidae), deforms the leaves.
* Rameau de Vigne et détail du fruit et de la fleur (Minost C.)
1: wine-tree bough.
a; 5-lobes leaf; b: dendril; c: sprig of grapes, made up of green or black berries.
2: longitudinal section of a grape.
a: pedicel; b: pip; c: pulp; 3: flower; a: ovary; b: stamina; c: flower cap (corolla).
HYPPZ on line: Species (scientific names), Pests (common names), Glossary, Crops.
HYP3 : HYPP Phytopathology.