[R] Allium sativum L. (Liliaceae).
Fr: Ail; Ge: Knoblauch; Sp: Ajo; It: Aglio; Pt: Alho.
- Bulbous, perennial plant (*) cultivated in Europe since ancient times.
- The bulb produces 5 to 16 bubils or cloves, which are used for flavour and constitute a major element in Mediterranean cooking.
- There are many varieties that are separated into two groups: autumn varieties, that are planted before winter and are very productive but whose cloves do not conserve well, varieties that may be planted until March, and that produce small bulbs, that can be stored for 1 year.
- Harvesting in June-July, when a third of the top leaves have turned yellow.
- The cloves located at the periphery of the bulb are used as seeds.
- Because of the fact that diseases and nematodes remain in the soil, rotations are recommended every 5 years.
- Diseases: serious problems (downy mildew: Peronospora destructor) are often linked to the excessive frequency in planting Alliaceae on the same plot of land.
- Principal European pests: the most frequent pests are the stem nematode (Ditylenchus dipsaci), which causes deformation and bursting of the bulbs.
The onion fly (Delia antiqua) causes the foliage to wilt and the bulb to decompose. The larvae of F. and B. undatus (Col., Curculionidae) nibble at the bulbs.
* Garlic (Minost C.)
a: root; b: bulb made up of 5-16 bulbils; c: leaves elongate; d: inflorescence.
* Cotton-tree bough (Minost C.)
a: 3-lobes leaf; b: flower alone, white or yellow; c: fruit (capsule) covered with long silky white hairs.
HYPPZ on line: Species (scientific names), Pests (common names), Glossary, Crops.
HYP3 : HYPP Phytopathology.