[R] Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae).
Fr: Olivier; Ge: Ílbaum; Pt: Oliveira; Sp: Olivo; It: Olivo.
- Tree or shrubby tree with everlasting leaves and a crooked appearance, often short but can attain a height of 12 m. It has been cultivated since ancient times in the Mediterranean basin. There are wild varieties present in the bush and many cultivated varieties.
- The fruits (olives) are oval drupes whose green or black flesh is edible. They are used as condiments or for cooking oil production (*) . The wood of olive trees is very hard and is used in wood-working.
- Spain is the principal European producer, followed by Greece, Italy and Portugal.
Flowering occurs in May-June. The olives destined to be used as condiments are picked in autumn and left to soak in salt water. The olives to be used for oil production are harvested in December.
- Propagation occurs by seeds or by vegetative reproduction.
- Olive trees are characterized by their great longevity.
-Diseases: Rot of the roots due to (Armillaria mellea, Rosellinia necatrix) is the most serious disease and results in a more or less rapid decline of the tree.
- Principal European pests: 3 species in particular cause serious damage: the (Dacus oleae), the (Prays oleae) and the (Saissetia oleae).
Other less important pests: the (Phloeotribus scarabaeoides), Hylesinus oleiperda (F.) (Col., Scolytidae), and the leopard moth (Zeuzera pyrina).
* Olive-tree bough (Minost C.)
a: leaf entire, ovale, superior face dark green, inferior face silverish; persistent; petiole short,; b: fruit green or black: olive (drupe).
HYPPZ on line: Species (scientific names), Pests (common names), Glossary, Crops.
HYP3 : HYPP Phytopathology.