[R] Trifolium spp. (Fabaceae).
Fr: Trèfle; Ge: Klee; Pt: Trevo; Sp: Trébol; It: Trifoglio.
- Short forage legumes that may be annual or perennial, pollinated by honey bees, bumblebees and some Lepidoptera.
- This genus includes many forage species, the principal ones being white clover (T. repens L.) and red clover (T. pratense L.).
- Diseases: those of forage legumes. Damping-off diseases due to Sclerotinia trifoliorum and clover anthracnose (Kabatiella caulivora) are of particular note.
- Principal European pests: in common with forage legumes. The clover seed midge, Dasineura leguminicola (Lintner), Dip. Cecidomyiidae), and, on red clover, the clover seed weevil Apion trifolii and A. apricans (Herbst) (Col., Apionidae) are often destructive.
Trifolium pratense L.
Syn: red clover, purple clover, cowgrass, Chilian clover.
Fr: Trèfle des près, Trèfle violet, Trèfle rouge, Trèfle commun.; Ge: Rot, Kopfklee; Sp: Trebolrojo, Trebol violeta, Trebol de los prados: Pt: Trevo-dos-prados.
- Perennial (short period: 1-3 years) plant with a taproot, very wide spread, actually cultivated in Europe only during the last two centuries.
- There are late, single-harvest varieties, cultivated in northern and continental Europe, and early, two-harvest varieties, cultivated in southern Europe.
-It is sown as a pure stand, or, more frequently, together with a forage grass such as rye-grass.
- Planting occurs in April-May; the first harvest takes place at the first flowering (July) and the second harvest at the second flowering (early September). In the case of a September planting, a single harvest occurs in the first year. A clover field is often destroyed after the second harvest because this plant rapidly exhausts the soil. During the following years silage is possible (at the budding stage). Red clover is difficult to turn into hay.
Trifolium repens L.
Syn: white clover, dutch clover, white trefoil.
Fr: Trèfle blanc, Trèfle rampant, Trèfle de Hollande; Ge: Kriechklee, Stein Klee, Weissklee; Sp: Trebol blanco, Trebol de Holanda: Pt: Trevo branco.
- Strongly perennial plant, creeping(*) , widespread throughout the world.
- It is often sown with forage grasses (rye grass, fescue, timothy) and used for pasture. The second harvest may be stored in silos or used as hay. It is also used as a cover plant.
- The crop generally lasts more than 4 years.
* White clover (Minost C.)
a: crawling stem; b: stipules; c: 3-leaflets leafs, with long petiole; d: capitulum-like inflorescence, with a long petiole; flowers small and white oer pinkish; e: fruit (pod) containing 1 to 4 seeds.
HYPPZ on line: Species (scientific names), Pests (common names), Glossary, Crops.
HYP3 : HYPP Phytopathology.