[R] Cynara scolymus L. (Asteraceae).
Fr: Artichaut; Ge: Artischocke; Sp: Alcachofa; It: Carciofo; Pt: Alcachofra.
- Mediterranean perennial plant cultivated for its voluminous capitula, called heads or apples, in which the receptacle and the base of the bract are consumed as vegetable, or occasionally as fruit (*) .
- The offshoots are planted in March-April. The harvest of the capitula is manual and is coincident with maturation, which occurs when the bracts start to open.
- A plantation may produce for 3 to 4 years.
- Diseases: among the diseases which severely attack artichokes, powdery mildew causes important damage in the south of France, and downy mildew is problematic in Brittany. Virus diseases do not, at the present, pose serious difficulties.
- Principal European pests: the most important are aphids with the black bean aphid (Aphis fabae), the leaf-curling plum aphid (Brachycaudus helichrysi), Capitophorus horni and the thistle aphid (B. cardui);.
noctuid moths, including the Gortyna xanthenes which burrows into the stem and capitula; the larva of the painted lady butterfly, Cynthia cardui (L.) (Lep. Nymphalidae) browse on the leaves.
Other specific pests are found on artichokes, but they are less damaging: Cassida deflorata (Suffrian) (Col., Chrysomelidae), Sphaeroderma rubidum (Graells) (Col., Chrysomelidae), the leaf miner fly, Agromyza apfelbecki (Strobl) (Dip., Agromyzidae) damage the leaves, as does Agonopterix subpropinquella Staiton (Lep., Oecophoridae).
larvae of Cnephasia chrysantheana Duponchel (Lep., Tortricidae) nibble on capitula. The common wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus)) and the common vole (Microtus arvalis) gnaws at the base of the stem.
* Artichoke (Minost C.)
a: offshoot (to transplant); b: capitulum with bracts.
HYPPZ on line: Species (scientific names), Pests (common names), Glossary, Crops.
HYP3 : HYPP Phytopathology.