[R] Fragaria X ananassa Duchesne. (Rosaceae).
Fr: Fraisier; Ge: Erdbeerstaude; Sp: Fresa; It: Fragola; Pt: Morangueico.
- Perennial plant with stolons, small size, with white flowers (*) . Wild strawberries (Fragaria vesca L.), found in cool, shady places in the wild, is the original stock for the many cultivated species, derived through selection and hybridization.
- The principal European producers are Spain, Italy and France.
- The red fruit (strawberries) have small achenes originating from the development of the flower receptacle. They are consumed fresh or processed.
- For commercial cultivation, early, productive, disease resistant, easily stored (best looking) varieties are preferred.
- Propagation occurs by seeds or by vegetative reproduction (runners, subdividsion of the underground stem, micropropagation). The flowers which appear a few weeks after planting must be removed as should the stolons. Cultivation often occurs under plastic shelters.
- Most of the harvesting is done manually in May-June. The harvested fruits are quickly placed in cool storage: they are fragile and damage easily when handled.
- Diseases: the most serious are virus diseases, verticillium wilt, botrytis, anthracnose (Colletotrichum fragariae) and phytophthora.
- Principal European pests: many pests attack strawberries in a localized but often spectacular fashion. The larvae of various species of Otiorhynchus (Col., Curculionidae), the cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha) and the garden swift moth (Korscheltellus lupulinus), and also many species of nematode attack the roots and crown.
The leaf nematode (Aphelencoides fragariae), the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae), the strawberry root aphid (Aphis forbesi), the strawberry aphid (Chaetosiphon fragaefolii), and the (Phytonemus pallidus) attack the leaves.
The stem nematode (Ditylenchus dipsaci) causes the leaves to deform and the floral organs to atrophy. Finally, the field slug (Deroceras reticulatum) devours the flesh of the fruit.
* Strawberry-plant (Minost C.)
a: roots; b: stolon; c: sprout; d: leaf with very long petiole; 3-dentate leaflets; e: flower white; f: fruit red (strawberry) with small hardned achenes.
HYPPZ on line: Species (scientific names), Pests (common names), Glossary, Crops.
HYP3 : HYPP Phytopathology.