[R] Daucus carota L. (Apiaceae).
Fr: Carotte; Ge: Karotte; Sp: Zanahoria; It: Carota; Pt: Cenoura.
- Herbaceous biennial plant with small pink or white umbelliferous flowers, found growing wild in dry plains or at the edge of fields. The root is small, slender and hard, but becomes thick and fleshy when the plant is cultivated (*) .
- The root is used raw or cooked for human consumption (garden carrot) or for animal consumption (forage carrot).
- There are many varieties of carrots : hybrids that assure a good yield, good uniformity and often ones that develop early, are especially cultivated. Varieties that are early and have short roots are differentiated from varieties that develop later and have long roots.
- The root forms in the first year, the flowers and seeds in the 2nd year. Harvesting is spread out from June until the end of autumn.
- Diseases: fungi responsible for root diseases are the most serious. These consist of (Phytophtora megasperma), violet root rot (Rhizoctonia violacea), and white rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum).
- Rotations with a minimal duration of 5 years, liming and draining of the soil, are the conditions necessary to maintain carrot cultivations in a state of good health.
- Principal European pests: the carrot fly (Psila rosae) whose larvae burrow in the roots, is the most serious pest. The carrot cyst nematode (Heterodera carotae) damages the roots. Semiaphis dauci (F.) (Hom. Aphididae), the willow-carrot aphid, Cavariella aegopodii (Scopoli) (same family), and the carrot sucker, Trioza apicalis (Förster) (Hom., Psyllidae) damage the leaves.
Finally, some other pests that attack the roots: the field slug (Deroceras reticulatum) and the turnip moth (Agrotis segetum).
* Carrot with inflorescence (Minost C.)
1: 1st-year carrot.
a; taproot orange red, fleshy; b: leaves composite, denticulate, arranges in a rosette.
2: 2nd-year inflorescence.
a: leaf with folded petiole; b: umbel of small white (or pinkinsh) flowers.
HYPPZ on line: Species (scientific names), Pests (common names), Glossary, Crops.
HYP3 : HYPP Phytopathology.