[R] - Legumes are found in Europe as herbaceous plants. In Europe they are all part of the family Papilionaceae (Leguminosae). They are characterized by the presence, on their roots, of little swellings called nodes which contain bacteria, of the genus Rhizobium, capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen.
- Forage legumes are used as feed for herbivores (pasture, hay, silage).
- The crops placed in this group are: lucerne, sainfoin, lupin, bird's-foot trefoil, clover and vetch.
- Diseases: the use of recently selected resistant varieties is an efficient way of preventing some diseases.
The most serious diseases are caused by fungi that produce withering: Verticillium albo-atrum on lucerne and Sclerotinia trifoliorum on purple clover and red clover.
- Principal European pests: the field slug (Deroceras reticulatum) mainly attacks the seedlings. The stem nematode (Ditylenchus dipsaci) may infest the roots. The clover-leaf weevil (Hypera postica) and Hypera nigrirostris (F.) (Col., Curculionidae) attack the leaves. In the case of crops being grown for seed, other pests are of concern: Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze) (Het., Miridae), Exolygus.
rugulipennis, Poppius (same family), and various species of midges.
HYPPZ on line: Species (scientific names), Pests (common names), Glossary, Crops.
HYP3 : HYPP Phytopathology.