[R] Beta vulgaris L. v. esculenta (Chenopodiaceae).
Fr: Betterave; Ge: Rote Beete; Sp: Remolacha; It: Bietola; Pt: Beterraba.
- Biennial plant cutivated for its fleshy, taproot, which forms during its first year and which is used in the sugar industry (sugar beet), for animal feed (forage beet) or for human consumption (garden beet).
- Diseases: certain diseases may seriously reduce the yield: powdery mildew, Cercospora, Ramularia, Rhizomania.
- Principal European pests: Certain pests attack the seedlings and very young plants, and need to be combatted quickly before they seriously damage the crop: the pygmy mangold beetle (Atomaria linearis) and the field slug (Deroceras reticulatum).
Chaetocnema tibialis (Illiger) (Col., Chrysomelidae) attacks the cotyledons.
The caterpillars of the turnip moth (Agrotis segetum), thedark sword-grass moth (Agrotis ipsilon) and the garden dart moth , (Euxoa nigricans) eat the roots at the beginning of their development, as do the larvae of the cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha). The beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii) deforms the roots and causes wilting of the plant.
Many pests attack the leaves. Aphids are particularly damaging because they may transmit a serious virus disease: yellowing (BMYV, BYV). The aphids involved are primarily the peach-potato aphid (Myzus persicae) and the black bean aphid (Aphis fabae). The silver y moth (Autographa gamma), the tomato moth (Mamestra oleracea) and the mangold fly (Pegomyia betae) eat the leaves. The tortoise beetles Cassida nebulosa L. and Cassida nobilis (L.) (Col., Chrysomelidae), and the potato capsid, Calocoris norvegicus (Gmelin) (Het., Miridae) may also cause minor damage to the leaves.
* Sugar beet (B. vulgaris v. altissima) (*) .
Fr: Betterave sucrière; Ge: Zickerrübe; Sp: Remolacha; It: Babaietola da zucchero; Pt: Beterraba sacarina.
- The root, richly saccharose, is essentially used for the production of sugar and to a lesser extent for distillation. The collars and leaves are consumed as animal feed or used as green fertilizer. It is sown early in the spring and harvested in autumn (mid-September to mid-November), when the leaves yellow and start to droop.
The principal European producers are France (in the North), Benelux and Germany.
* Forage beet (B. vulgaris v. alba) (*) .
Fr: Betterave fourragère; Ge: Futterrübe; Sp: Remolacha; It: Barbabietola da foraggio; Pt: Beterraba forrageira.
- The entire plant is consumed as animal feed (essentially by ruminants). Cultivation is the same as for sugar beet, but it is often sown in nurseries; transplanting occurs in June-July. It is most frequently cultivated in France, Germany, England, Belgium and the Netherlands.
*Red beet (*) .
- The red root is consumed raw or cooked. Sowing extends from March to July depending on the variety; thinning occurs at the 4- to 5- leaf stage, and harvesting begins in June and extends until the first frosts. England and France are the principal producers in Europe.
* Sugarbeet (Minost C.)
a: root rugose, cone-shaped, white or grey, containing great quantity of sugar; b: bud furrow; c: collar reduced; d: leaf.
* Forage beet (Minost C.)
a: root elongate, cylindre-shaped, smooth and white; the half of it protruding out of the soil; b: collar well developed; c: leaf.
HYPPZ on line: Species (scientific names), Pests (common names), Glossary, Crops.
HYP3 : HYPP Phytopathology.