[R] Brassica oleracea L. (Brassicaceae).
Fr: Chou; Ge: Kopfkohl; Sp: Col; It: Cavolo; Pt: Couve.
- There are different varieties of cabbage, used as nutrition for humans or animals: kale, head cabbage, Swedish turnips, Brussels' sprouts (var.gemmifera), cauliflower (var. botrytis), kohl-rabi as well as savoy cabbage, etc.
- Kale (var. acephala) is a plant with a straight, non-branched stem 0.2 to 2 m tall, terminating in a loose rosette. It is sown in March-April, transplanted in May, and the harvest starts in September. It is essentially cultivated as a forage plant.
- The Swedish turnip is cultivated for its root or stem ("rutabagas") developed and consumed as a vegetable. Sown from March to July in nurseries, it is transplanted a month later. The harvest starts in July and extends until winter.
- Head cabbage (var. capitata) are low, biennial plants with a thick stem on which tightly layered leaves form the edible "head". They are consumed raw or cooked. There are many varieties differing in colour, appearance of the leaves, their cultivation calendar, and their eventual use. They are sown in nurseries or in fields, occasionally under glass. transplanting occurs 4 to 6 weeks later, at the 5 to 6 leaf stage.
- Kohl rabi (var. gonguloides) has a short and tuberous stem 15 to 20 cm in diameter at soil level. Sowing occurs around the 15th of May. The principal European producers are Germany and Italy.
- The savoy cabbage (var. sabauda) has rippled leaves and is sown under shelter in spring.
- The cabbage (var. tronchuda) has a short stem, thick, fleshy, veined leaves. Final planting occurs at the end of summer and the harvest is at the end of winter.
- Diseases: serious damage is caused by fungi (downy mildew, cankers due to Pamodiophora brassicae, alternaria diseases: Alternaria brassicae, A. brassiciola) or by the (CaMV: cabbage mosaic virus, TuMV: Swedish turnip Mosaic).
- Principal European pests: many species of nematodes attack the roots, including the cyst beet nematode (Heterodera schachtii). The turnip gall weevil (Ceuthorhynchus pleurostigma), the rape stem weevil (C. napi) attack the roots, collar and stems, as the cabbage root fly (Delia radicum) and Baris laticollis (Marsham) (Col., Curculionidae).
Various species of aphid are found on the leaves, including the cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) and the peach-potato aphid (Myzus persicae).
The large white butterfly (Pieris brassicae), the cabbage moth (Mamestra brassicae), the silver y moth (Autographa gamma) and the garden pebble moth, Evergestis forficalis (L.) (Lep., Pyralididae), damage the leaves.
HYPPZ on line: Species (scientific names), Pests (common names), Glossary, Crops.
HYP3 : HYPP Phytopathology.