[R] Prunus domestica L. (Rosaceae); Fr: Prunier; Ge: Pflaumenbaum; Pt: Ameixeira; Sp: Ciruelo; It: Susino.
- Fruit tree 5 to 7 m in height, with greenish-white flowers, pollinated by bees.
-The principal producers in the EU are Germany, Italy, France and Spain. Yugoslavia and Romania are also large producers on a European scale.
- The fruit (plum) is a drupewith green or coloured flesh (*) , that is consumed fresh or after processing. The greengage, the mirabelle and the damson plums are used a great deal in the food processing industry (canned, jams, distillation...); the d'Agen variety is used for dried fruit (prunes).
- Propagation is by seeds, suckers, and especially by grafting.
- Harvest occurs from the end of June until September.
- Knowledge of the phenological stages permits a more logical approach to pest and disease management (*) .
-Diseases: among the most damaging diseases to plum, rust(Tranzschelia pruni-spinosae) causes the leaves to fall prematurely, brown rot (Monilia laxa and M. fructigena) settles on the flowers and damages the fruit. Plum pox virus (virus disease that is transmitted by aphids) is a serious disease that renders the fruit unmarketable. The sole defense against this disease is to use only certified plants in cultivation.
- Principal European pests: some of these are common to the other fruit trees with pips or stones. The peach-potato aphid (Myzus persicae), the leaf-curling plum aphid (Brachycaudus helichrysi), the black peach aphid (B. prunicola) and the mealy plum aphid (Hyalopterus pruni) colonize the leaves.
The oystershell scale (Quadraspidiotus ostraeiformis), the brown scale (Eulecanium corni), the (Eulecanium persicae), the northern pear scale (Quadraspidiotus piri), as well as the plum spur mite (Acalitus phloecoptes) colonize the branches and shoots.
The red plum maggot (Cydia funebrana) attacks the fruit.
* Plum-tree bought (Minost C.)
a: leaf elliptical, pointed, dentate; b: flower; c: plum (drupe).
* Phenological stages of plum-tree (Minost C.)
A: winter bud; B: swelling; C: flower buds appearent; D: flower buds open; E: stamina are appearent; F: full bloom; G: petals are falling; H: settling; I: calyx is falling; J: young fruit.
HYPPZ on line: Species (scientific names), Pests (common names), Glossary, Crops.
HYP3 : HYPP Phytopathology.