[R] Prunus cerasus Miller (Rosaceae).
Fr: Cerisier; Ge: Kirschbaum; Pt: Cerejeira; Sp: Cerezo; It: Ciliegio.
_ Fruit tree 1 to 5 m in height, the trunk has smooth bark, the white flowers are arranged in small clusters and are pollinated by bees. It is very widespread throughout Europe where it is found growing naturally.
- The principal producers in Europe, in decreasing order, are: Germany, Italy, Spain and France.
- The fruit (cherry) is a spherical drupe, with a skin that is shiny and glabrous, white, yellow, pink or red, with the flesh more or less dark red (*) and a smooth stone. Cherry-trees are cultivated for their fruit (fresh, canned, served in syrup, jams, jellies...) and also for their wood which is much valued in wood working.
- Sweet cherries are differentiated from sour varieties (morello).
- Flowering occurs in March-April. Harvesting is done manually for fresh cherries and mechanically for fruit that will be processed (canned, served in syrup, jam, liqueurs, etc.).
- Propagation is by grafting. The plants obtained from nurseries are planted in winter, during the dormant period.
- Knowledge of the phenological stages permits a more logical pest and disease management (*) .
- Diseases: varying with region and variety, the principal damage can be ascribed to brown rot (Monilia laxa). Bacterial diseases can produce serious wilting. It is recommended to use only plants certified against degenerative viral diseases or mycoplasma.
- Principal European pests: in common with other fruit trees with pips or stones. The starling (Sturnus vulgaris) causes serious damage by eating the fruit. The larvae of the cherry fruit moth, Argyresthia pruniella (Hübner) (Lep. Hyponomeutidae) eat the flowers.
Leaf damage is caused by the pear slug sawfly, Caliroa cerasi L., (Hym., Tenthredinidae), mites of the genus Vasates and colonies of cherry black fly (Myzus cerasi).
The dagger nematode () may transmit virus diseases. Finally, the European cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis cerasi ) renders the fruit much less appetizing, devaluing the crop.
* Cherry (Minost C.)
1a: leaf oblong, elongate (16-20 cm) more or less denticulate; 1b: flowers white, 3 or 4 together; 1c: cherry (drupe).
* Phenological stages of cherry-tree (Minost C.)
A: winter bud; B: swelling; C: flower buds appearent; D: flower buds open; E: stamina are appearent; F: full bloom; G: petals are falling; H: settling; I: calyx is falling; J: young fruit.
HYPPZ on line: Species (scientific names), Pests (common names), Glossary, Crops.
HYP3 : HYPP Phytopathology.