[R] Pirus communis L. (Rosaceae).
Fr: Poirier; Ge: Birnbaum; Pt: Pereira; Sp: Peral; It: Pero.
- Fruit tree, 4 to 15 m in height, that may be found growing wild in woods and hedges. The flowers, white with pink-purple anthers (*) , blossom in the spring and are pollinated by bees.
- It has long been cultivated for its fruit with pips (pears). Numerous cultivars exist today.
- The principal producers in Europe are Italy, then Spain, Germany and France.
- Storage of the fruit has improved. Conditions are carefully controlled and are being increasingly perfected (storage occurs in cold rooms with modified atmospheres).
- Many pests and diseases affect a specific phenological stage in pear. Effective pest and disease contol mesures depend on good recognition of these stages(*) ..
- Multiplication occurs by grafts either onto a quince tree or a wild pear-tree.
- Flowering occurs in April, before the appearance of leaves. Fruit production may start as early as the second year, and certainly by the third year. Pear trees are very long-lived.
-Diseases: among the fungal diseases, scab (Venturia pirina) and brown rot (Monilia fructigena) are the most important. Bacterial diseases are also serious: Pseudomonas syringae pv.syringae and fire blight (Erwinia amylovora).
Among the viruses, the pear ring pattern virus, the yellow vein virus, the wilting virus and the stony pit virus (stony pears) are the most damaging.
-Principal European pests: common to all fruit trees with pips and stones, especially those of apple.
However, there exist a large number of specific pests, for example Psylla pirisuga (Förster) (Hom.,.
Psyllidae). The European pear sucker (Cacopsylla pyri), the southern pear scale (Quadraspidiotus piri ) and Agrilus sinuatus (Olivier) (Col., Buprestidae) attack the branches.
The pear-bedstraw aphid (Dysaphis piri), the brown pear aphid (Melanaphis pyrarius) and the pear leaf blister mite (Phytoptus pyri) are found on the leaves.
The pear sawfly (Hoplocampa brevis) and the pear midge (Contarinia pyrivora) damage the fruit. The (Vespula germanica) can also reduce the value of the harvest.
* Pear-tree bough and section of fruit (Minost C.)
1: pear-tree bough.
a: leaf; b: flower; c: fruit (pear).
2: longitudinal section of a pear.
a: stalk; b: cortical parenchyma (flesh); c: pip; d: carpel. e: hart; f: eye or ocular bowl.
* Phenological stages of the pear-tree (Minost C.)
O,A: winter bud; B: swelling starts; C,C3: apparent swelling; D,D3: appearance of the floral buds; E,E2: the sepals let the petals appear; F: first flower; F2: full bloom; G: fall of the first petals; H: fall of last petals; I: setting; J: growth of fruit.
HYPPZ on line: Species (scientific names), Pests (common names), Glossary, Crops.
HYP3 : HYPP Phytopathology.