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[R] Malus domestica Borkhausen.
Fr: Pommier; Ge: Apfelbaum; Pt: Macieira; Sp: Manzano; It: Melo.
-Fruit tree, 4-10 m in height,with thorns present in the wild. The thornless common apple tree can be found naturally, growing in hedges (*) .
- In the temperate zone, apple has a long history as the most commonly cultivated fruit tree. There currently exist a large number of different cultivars.
- It is cultivated for its fruit with pips (apples), which are consumed either directly or used to make cider. Storage of the fruit has improved. Conditions have been increasingly perfected and are carefully controlled (storage in cold rooms with modified atmospheres).
- The principal European producers are Germany, Italy, France, the Netherlands, England, Greece and Belgium.
- Subject to intensive arboriculture, species that cross-pollinate readily, such as the Reinette, the Golden Delicious and red varieties, are required in every orchard.
-Maximal productivity occurs between 10 and 15 years of age.
- Many pests and diseases affect a specific phenological stage in apple. Effective pest and disease control measures depend on good recognition of these stages(*) .
- Apple trees can reproduce via seeds, but propagation usually occurs by grafting, generally onto wild stock or on rootstock propagated by layering or cuttings.
- Diseases: the principal fungal diseases affecting apple trees are apple scab (Venturia inaequalis), powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) and Phytophtora cactorum. Virus diseases have been less damaging since certified plants have carried a guarantee against the presence of MLO disease (due to a mycoplasma), apple mosaic, bitter pit disease (affecting the fruit) and russet ring.
- Principal European pests: common to all fruit trees with pips or stones. Many other pests are identical to those of pear: the mussel shell scale (Lepidosaphes ulmi), the oystershell scale (Quadraspidiotus ostraeiformis) and the northern pear scale Quadraspidiotus piri colonize the branches.
The apple bud moth (Spilotona occellana), the apple-grass aphid (Rhopalosiphum insertum) and the green apple aphid (Aphis pomi) attack the leaves. The apple borer (Synanthedon myopaeformis) burrows in the wood.
There are also many specific pests: the woolly aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum) on the shoots or wounds on the trunk; the apple sawfly (Hoplocampa testudinea) destroys the flower buds. There is also damage inflicted by the rosy apple aphid (Dysaphis plantaginea), the apple ermine moth (Yponomeuta malinellus). The pear leaf blister moth (Leucoptera malifoliella) mines in the leaves. Finally, on the fruit, the principal damage is caused by the apple sawfly (Hoplocampa testudinea) and the codling moth (Cydia pomonella).

[R] Images

* Apple-tree bough and section of a fruit (Minost C.)
1: Apple-tree bough.
a: leaf; b: flower; c: fruit (apple).
2: longitudinal section of an apple.
a: stalk; b: peduncular bowl; c: cortical parenchyma (flesh); d: hart; c: ovarian loge; 2f: pips; 2g: ocular bowl or eye.

* Phenological stages of the apple-tree (Minost C.)
A: winter bud; B: start of swelling; C,C3: apparent swelling; D,D3: floral bud appearance; E,E2: the sepals let the petals appear; F: first flower; F2: full bloom; G: fall of first petals; H: fall of last petals; I: setting; J: growth of the fruit.

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HYPPZ on line: Species (scientific names), Pests (common names), Glossary, Crops.

HYP3 : HYPP Phytopathology.

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