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Monilinia laxa (Aderhold et Ruhland) Honey x Prunus spp.
Sclerotinia laxa Aderhold et Ruhland,

Mycologia, ASCOMYCOTINA,HELOTIALES .

Crops attacked: apricot, .


[R]Common Names :

Brown rot

Identification, Description, Biology, Epidemiology, Treatement, Possible misleading, Images


[R]Identification
.

[R]Description
This disease affects the twigs, the flowers and the fruits.
The fungus causes wilt of the blossom which dries out and does not drop. Small grey pustulant cushions occur on the peduncles of flowers.
The fruits are colonised by brown rot which rapidly invades them and shows rings of grey or pale brown pustulant clumps on the surface.
In autumn the mummified fruits do not fall from the branches.
The twigs are infected by the blossom or the infected unfallen fruits via the peduncles.
The colonisation of the twigs causes the cankers and the gummy exudate on the living parts.

[R]Biology
Monilia laxa overwinters as mycelium in the cankers and the mummified parts. In winter and humid springs there is abundant conidial production on these parts in the form of pustulant cushions.
The winter and spring conidia are the cause of blossom infection while the intensly sporulating summer conidia contaminate the fruits.
The mummified fruits are invaded by a stroma.

[R]Epidemiology
Conidia are produced over 10 C. in high RH.
They can be dispersed by the wind or the water or transported by .
Conidial contamination is favoured by the presence of wounds.
Contamination through prolongued contact between an infected and a healthy part is also possible.
The perfect form (peziza) is rare in Europe and has little incidence in the epidemiology of this pathogen.

[R]Treatement
Avoid wounding and splitting of the fruits. Late pruning is recommended.
Remove and burn the mummified parts and the cankers.
Apply fungicides against fruit splitting and use pesticidal control against the vectors which cause the wounds.

[R]Possible misleading
Monilia fuctigena but it is M. laxa in particular which is spread all over and causes severe loss.

[R] Images

  1. Monilia laxa , Brown rot (BASF)
    Brown rot on cherry-tree Severe infection of Monilia laxa on a cherry branch.
  2. Monilia laxa , Brown rot (BASF)
    Brown rot on cherry-tree Last stage of Monilia laxa sporulation on cherries.
  3. Monilia laxa , Brown rot (VEGH I., INRA)
    Brown rot on cherry-tree Begining of an infection by Monilia laxa on cherries.
  4. Monilia laxa , Brown rot (VEGH I., INRA)
    Brown rot on cherry-tree Sporulation of Monilia laxa on cherry-tree.
  5. Monilia laxa , Brown rot (VEGH I., INRA)
    Brown rot on cherry-tree Last stage of Monilia laxa sporulation on cherries.
  6. Monilia laxa , Brown rot (ACTA)
    Brown rot on plum-tree First cushions of Monilia laxa sporulation on a plum.

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HYP3 on line : Species (scientific name), Diseases (common names), Glossary, Crops.

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