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Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV)

Virus, COMOVIRIDAE, NEPOVIRUS .

Crops attacked: grapevine .


[R]Common Names :

Grapevine fanleaf

Important and widespread virus disease of grapevine, occuring in all vine growing regions, probably spread by the main vector, the nematode Xiphinema index and by infected plant material.

Identification, Description, Biology, Epidemiology, Treatement, Possible misleading, Images


[R]Identification
All the virus serotypes can be detected either by serological tests using ELISA method, by grafting on woody indicators ( Vitis ruprestis St. George), or by mechanical inoculation to herbaceous plants ( Chenopodium amaranticolor or C. quinoa ).
Observation of symptoms in the fields is also important.

[R]Description
Causes wide range of symptoms on grapevine : shortening of internodes, zigzag growth and fasciation on the shoots; asymetry of the blade, resembling a fan, acute indentation on the leaves.
Chromogenic strains of the virus induce various patterns of yellow discoloration (yellow mosaic form).
Fruit set is poor, fewer and smaller bunches with aborted berries. Yield is reduced in more than 50% and longevity of the plant is low.

[R]Biology
The causal agent is a nepovirus (virus transmitted by nematodes, with polyedral particles).
Several serotypes are recognized, some inducing distortion (grapevine fan leaf virus) others chromogenic symptoms (grapevine yellow mosaic and grapevine vein banding).
Particles with a bipartite genome.
It has a wide host range among perennial plants and trees and is transmitted easily by mechanical inoculation.

[R]Epidemiology
All the serotypes are transmitted efficiently by the nematode vector Xiphinema index in natural conditions.
Infected nematodes are present in deep parts of the soil, contaminating it and making the recovery of the soil difficult.
Infected propagating material is responsible for long distance spread of the virus and of the vector.

[R]Treatement
Through selection and production of virus free stocks by heat therapy and or meristem culture in order to use healthy scion and rootstock plant material.
Avoid using contaminated soils to eliminate virus reservoirs and to diminish nematode population.
Production of rootstocks and/or cultivars resistant to the virus are under way, including production of transgenic plants.

[R]Possible misleading
Similar symptoms on grapevine can be caused by other nepovirus occurring in other European and Mediterranean countries, like arabis mosaic (distantly related to GFLV and transmitted by Xiphinema diversicaudatum mainly), raspberry ringspot (RRS), in Western Germany and transmitted probably by Longidorus macrosoma , strawberry latent ringspot (SLR), in Germany and Portugal, and tomato black ring (TBR) transmitted by Longidorus attenuatus (in Western Germany and Greece).

[R] Images

  1. Grapevine fanleaf virus, GFV (HEVIN M., INRA)
    Grapevine fanleaf virus Plant infected with the grapevine fanleaf virus, present throughout the vineyard, as indicated by the characteristic yellowing of the vegetation.
  2. Grapevine fanleaf virus, GFV (BOSSENNEC J-M., INRA)
    Grapevine fanleaf virus Focus of fanleaf virus infection indicated by yellow coloured plants in a vineyard (overview).
  3. Grapevine fanleaf virus, GFV (BOSSENNEC J-M., INRA)
    Grapevine fanleaf virus Closer view of a focus of fanleaf virus infection indicated by yellow coloured plants in a vineyard.
  4. Grapevine fanleaf virus, GFV (BOSSENNEC J-M., INRA)
    Grapevine fanleaf virus Characteristic yellowing caused by fanleaf virus infection of a grapevine.
  5. Grapevine fanleaf virus, GFV (BOSSENNEC J-M., INRA)
    Grapevine fanleaf virus Characteristic yellowing of leaves at the base of a grapevine shoot infected with the fanleaf virus.
  6. Grapevine fanleaf virus, GFV (BOSSENNEC J-M., INRA)
    Grapevine fanleaf virus Complete yellowing of the lamina and veins of a leaf at the base of a grapevine plant infected by the fanleaf virus.

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